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HARRY POTTER - THE CATALYST

by Jacques More

"Harry Potter is one of those gems of literature which, not unlike Jesus is on the one hand a stumbling block and a rock of offense whilst on the other a source of life, joy and fun."

Harry Potter is a character in fictional stories created by the author J.K.Rowling. There have been 4 titles to date (April 2002). In the space of a few short years these stories have taken the book world by storm causing Christmas 2001 sales in excess of 50,000 units per week for one title in the U.K. alone. There has also been opposition to these stories hence this article. I wish now to refer to the stories by the letters HP and I mention 'Harry' for the character.

Harry is found in amongst relatives 'the Dursleys' in a quiet British suburban street. The story begins with his discovery that there is a magical world to which he belongs as a wizard. Witchcraft in the stories is given a whole emphasis of a life of magic and a realm beyond the ordinary human. 'Muggles' as they are known in the stories. Harry's adventures start properly as he makes his way to the school for witches and wizards called Hogwarts and the whole world of magic this encompasses. He makes friends with Ron with whom he shares a dormitory, Hermione an intelligent and clever girl, and Hagrid a previous pupil who lives in the grounds of the school. Another looser but real friendship is with Dumbledore the headmaster and this makes for a good example of such between generations...

The problem that has been highlighted with HP is that the world of witchcraft it portrays is a door to the real thing for its readers either by association or by its suggestion. For this to be valid there needs to be those who have gone on to be involved in 'real' witchcraft as a result of their reading the books. If the reports of 'real' witchcraft sources are anything to go by then this has happened. Hence the problem highlighted by concerned Christian organisations which deal with the family or those which deal with cults and the occult. The readership of the books aimed at children but enjoyed by adults makes this a compounding issue.

Is all of this true and what do we do about it?

That has been my searching question.

My attention was brought to HP as friends mentioned the stories and as I read articles from organisations as mentioned. It began to make sense to me I had a role to play in a similar way to how the issue of tithing was 'put on my plate'. In order to do so however I needed to make my own reading of HP a priority.

Frankly I have really enjoyed HP, to begin with especially the first book. I was relieved to find it so good after what I had heard said otherwise in concern. It was a great relief in view of some of the bad press. Understandable even though the concerns may be, I was by reading first-hand also aggrieved in discovering what I sensed, if not shocked and surprised, about the clear misrepresentation of quotes by fellow Christians made from HP. Probably the best of the 4 books for me was Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban as the plot turns into a thriller with clever twists and turns demanding your continued attention. As to purpose and motives for the story I will talk further. I have now seen not a few interviews with J.K.Rowling. So to see further if HP is bad let's take a closer look at witchcraft.

Witchcraft

The Bible is clear about witchcraft. But, here discernment of its true nature is probably at the heart of the critical issues regarding Harry Potter. Is witchcraft the trappings of it and with that I include the appearance of practising it or, is it the heart attitude and rebellious action involved with the real thing? There are real witches and those who call themselves witches without any more than a new age mind-set. Equally there are those who are not called witches who practise real witchcraft. Probably more of those than any other. The practise of concocting things to one's own ends by elligitimate influence over others probably the loosest but most common definition and form of the practise.

Just as 'Christians' there are a plenty, real, imagined and false. Not forgetting the righteous in God's sight who have never been named 'Christian'. There are real, imagined and false witches and wizards. Literature has given us examples of good ones and bad ones from the wizard of Oz to Snow White's apple giver. The apple having been made harmful by magic. HP is full of a world of generally good witches and wizards and the world of magic, but with a significant few bad guys. This is what makes the stories different from previous associations with witchcraft. Apart from a few occasional visits by muggles the principal characters are all either witches or wizards.

So, is witchcraft bad?

Most certainly.

The Lord said to Israel,


There shall not be found among you anyone who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, or one who practises witchcraft, or a soothsayer, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer, or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead. For all who do these things are an abomination to the LORD . . .

Deuteronomy 18:10-12

The 'type' of witchcraft referred to involves sorcery and these two terms are interchangeable when translated in the New Testament Greek from 'pharmakeia' depending on the Version of the Bible. The word from which we get pharmacy. Which is not to say medicine is harmful, but the involvement with concoctions in a particular setting. And this is where discernment comes in and I shall expand on that. Here is the translation of 'pharmakeia':

Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: . . . idolatry, sorcery, hatred . . .

Galatians 5:19-20

. . . idolatry, witchcraft, hatred . . .

Galatians 5:19-20 KJV

Now effectively this manifestation or act is the practise of concocting things to influence others without working with them and often not for their benefit. It is the manipulation of events, words, potions, to make something happen to another. It is control and pressure upon others. Speaking of Babylon future and the infamous queen Jezebel of the past this is the practise:

. . . your merchants were the great men of the earth, for by your sorcery all the nations were deceived.

Revelation 18:23

. . . your mother Jezebel and her witchcraft are so many . . .

2 Kings 9:22

Jesus said,

You have heard that it was said to those of old, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to lust after her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

Matthew 5:27-28

Jesus declared the act of really desiring to do something bad is as wrong as doing the act itself. The thinking and working out of ways to control a situation to one's own ends illegitimately is no different to doing the act of control over others or a situation by the means of 'physical' witchcraft. This is why I call this kind of manipulation and 'control' real witchcraft. So, the basic act of effecting control upon others illegitimately whether as a manipulating salesman or in abuse of authority when a leader is a form of witchcraft. Prayers made without reference to clear direction from the Lord's will and purpose often a means of control over someone else's life. Rebellion which is deliberate disobedience of clear rules and directions is also seen as the sin of witchcraft.

For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft . . .

1 samuel 15:23

The act mentioned was to sacrifice an animal which was the sole preserve of priests by someone other in authority whilst in a tight spot. This attempt at controlling the situation by unnatural line of responsibility the act of rebellion in question. Hence the link to witchcraft. But, what has this got to do with the traditional classic picture of long robes, a pointed hat, a couldron and a flying broom? Frankly, nothing in themselves. Attire has nothing to do with the fruit of your heart. Jesus made very clear how a wicked person should be identified. He went further to say that this is the only way to identify a wolf in sheep's clothing. Since it is not the outward appearance which reveals the evil one, but the practise of that person.

Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves. You will know them by their fruits . . . every good tree bears good fruit, but a bad tree bears bad fruit . . . Therefore by their fruits you will know them.

Matthew 7:15-20

I have written separately on the kind of fruit to be identified in my article Wolf in Sheep's clothing? Basically, domination, control (witchcraft), isolation, exclusivity and accusation.

So, is pharmacy bad? No. It's aims are to do good and drugs are thoroughly tested before brought into public use. Sorcery and real witchcraft including witch-doctors involve the calling upon the Devil and evil spirits. Pharmacy and that kind of medicine does not. So, the word cannot be thought harmful and similarly witchcraft is rapidly becoming a term for new age lovers of Mother earth. Sorcery now seems a better description, but that too may change. Words do. The practise of evil manipulation and control does not.

Curses also are real pronouncements and, as is getting better known any accusation told a child can act as such. For example: "You will never be good for anything!" believed by the hearer a destroyer of life and hope. The bible tells us a curse upon a good vessel is useless, but as with the child mentioned, the hearer needs to believe in themselves for the curse to have no room to enter. As we are told elsewhere 'faith' becomes a shield (Ephesians 6:16). Faith in who you really are being the key here. Doreen Irvine author of From Witchcraft to Christ used to curse Christians only to find the spirits she was serving were no match to Jesus' Spirit.

Like a flitting sparrow, like a flying swallow, so a curse without cause shall not alight.

Proverbs 26:2

It is this knowledge of the real spirit world which makes Christians uneasy about HP. Unhappy to see due to the association with real witchcraft anyone looking into it. No matter how fantastical and far from the real the stories themselves are the association remains. It is a mixed bag though. The opportunity is now present to share about the real thing as opposed to the counterfeit. The promotion of the truth of Jesus as opposed to the deceits of the Devil by a tool available through the common knowledge of HP. Due only through that very association which has proved uncomfortable for many.

And this is where discernment comes in. Which leads me nicely back to HP.

Witchcraft is real as are witch-doctors. The supernatural due to the activity of God, His angels or, the Devil and evil spirits a realm not to be ignored. It is significant that there is no mention of either sources in the HP stories. The closest you come to a 'spirit' are ghosts and these are understood as the departed 'spirits' of humans. No more. The good thing thereby of course is the exclusion of the belief in re-incarnation from the stories. The after-life tends to mutually exclude a belief in such. The closest you come to the existence of christianity is Harry's 'godfather' Sirius Black. A previous close friend of Harry's parents. Who was appointed as a guardian to Harry by his parents.

Is Harry Potter bad?

I am of course referring to the stories as a whole. The Bible is not silent as to the existence of the Devil and his minions. The occult and sorcery are real practises. I have no witness in Harry Potter of any such influence or direct involvement. In fact, the opposite. And this I need to demonstrate in view of the many quotes made elsewhere out of context. The bane of good teaching everywhere. The arguments brought against HP have included quotes which are very revealing. Probably the most famous quote involves the following words:

. . . there is no good or evil, there is only power . . .

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Page 211

(U.S.A: . . .The Sorcerer's Stone) Chapter: The Man with Two Faces

 

You may recall my mention of quotes out of context. This is regularly true of the Bible. You could make it 'say' anything. In fact the Bible tells us:


. . . There is no God.

Psalm 14:1

And, when you read the context you find,


The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God." . . .

Psalm 14:1

Of course, I understand this is a very simple illustration of a point. But, there are not a few teachings from the Bible 'out there' which are no more than strings of texts taken out of context. For so is the practise of the Devil, the arch enemy of truth. A liar from the beginning and one who quotes texts out of context regularly (John 8:44; Matthew 4:6). In HP the arch enemy of Harry is one called Voldemort (literally, 'flight of death' in French). He has many accomplices in the stories and one such is a person called Quirrell. The quote above is directly from Quirrell's lips in arguing with Harry. Quirrell says that,

. . . Lord Voldemort showed me how wrong I was. There is no good and evil, there is only power, and those too weak to seek it . . .

ibidem p. 211

In other words this is the standpoint or argument of someone clearly in league with the personification of evil and all bad in the HP stories. It is not an appropriate representation of the books as a whole. Not by a long shot. In fact, the opposite. The character who best represents all that is good is called Dumbledore. He is the headmaster of the school Harry goes to. And in the same book only a few pages away he says something very profound. A truth realised by not a few counsellors. It is a statement as regards the magical protection afforded Harry himself when he was a baby. And is a fact of life for all who experience it.

. . . To have been loved so deeply, even though the person who loved us is gone, will give us some protection for ever.

ibidem p. 216

Another good bit of wisdom from his lips are:

'Exactly', said Dumbledore, beaming once more. 'Which makes you very different from Tom Riddle. It is our choices, Harry, that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.' Harry sat motionless in his chair, stunned . . .

Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets p. 245

But what I think is not only wise but mature is the portraying of Dumbledore as a man even though full of goodness, wisdom and knowledge, but with limitations. In ...the Prisoner of Azkaban Dumbledore is powerless to save Sirius Black from his predicament. To be seen as an evil doer when he was in fact 'framed' long ago. Any faith a child has built up to this point of Dumbledore clearly given a stab of doubt as to invulnerability and deity. A very human but good individual remains.

Other quotes

Other quotes have been made about potion making or alleged contact with the dead. I found that J.K.Rowling's words are actually carefully chosen. In the case of the potions it is an illustration of the fantasy land of the stories. There is deliberately no basis or link to reality. To brew up 'fame', 'glory' or indeed to 'bewitch the mind' are not a physical reality from potions drunk. You can lose your ability to be awake or faint by drugs, but not to affect the mind directly. Just as the Devil can't cross your will and the Lord won't (He has self-control - Galatians 5:22-23) and to do this by means of a drink is not dwelling on reality. As are much of the illustrative and fantastical parts of the books. Whether a flying car, a centaur, a talking painting, or any of the many enchanted animals and creatures in the stories. Their purpose are to enchant the story. They are there to make it fun. Deliberately wildly distant from reality and this is obvious to the little child as he grows up onto the adult who enjoys the deliberate ideas for their own sakes. If one was to remove these than all fictional literature for the purpose of illustration would need questioning. And what a sorry state our culture would be in. It is in my view 'religious spirits' that would seek to quench this life. The Devil is shown us by Jesus as,

The thief [who] does not come except to steal, and to kill, and to destroy . . .

John 10:10 [my addition]

Just as many a Christian trekkie (a fan of Star Trek) who enjoys sci-fi stories which often are no more than morality plays, would not for a moment have faith in evolution on earth or life of an evolved alien species in outer space. There being no basis in empirical reality there either. A fact believed by great scientists like Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). Such a trekkie would no more delete the 'evolved' alien from his enjoyment of story-telling any more than I think we should discard the fantasy in HP. Unlike the fiction of evolution claimed as science in schools.

Contacting the dead

The quote used to suggest the books encourage contacting the dead:

. . . You think the dead we loved ever truly leave us? . . .

. . .Prisoner of Azkaban p. 312

This is no more than saying your memory of your loved one stays with you and can sometimes be a source of comfort. No more no less. There is nothing here about attempting to contact them.

Fortune telling

The benefits of seeking a fortune teller to guide you is well shown in HP as largely to be avoided. Harry and Ron his friend are given good marks for making things up. The large majority of pronouncements found false by the very teacher of the subject. A good example of the real world.

So, if the books in themselves have little to show bad where is the problem?

The problem is the association with witchcraft as a normal life-style. A realm to find as normal and only bad when used in that way. I started by saying that 'The problem that has been highlighted with HP is that the world of witchcraft it portrays is a door to the real thing for its readers either by association or by its suggestion'. I am satisifed that HP does not suggest this in any way. Association is the only link.

The Catalyst

Association with witchcraft is the core issue with Harry Potter.

Since we have seen that the stories in themselves do not suggest involvement in 'real' witchcraft, but the opposite spirit HP is like a catalyst in that only by association does it have a role in influencing participation in 'real' witchcraft.

A catalyst is a person or thing that facilitates a change without itself undergoing change. The biggest Catalyst of them all was Jesus Himself. He was a 'Rock of offense' and a 'Stumbling block' to the religious mind-set whilst being a healer, saviour, friend to the sincere and innocent (Romans 9:33; Matthew 11:28-30). Yet, He Himself, on His own was blameless and true. God loves a catalyst. It brings the worst and the best out of people. Even if that can be uncomfortable for the catalyst. The insincere heart is revealed by the double-minded thought life being offended. The pure in heart and innocent being given life, encouragement and comfort by the real truth which transcends the counterfeit in the world.

Harry Potter is a catalyst. In and of itself free from harmful and evil intent. But, the problem of association with the world of real witchcraft is causing an understandable stir. By association I am referring to the activities associated with witchcraft as found in the HP stories. Mixing of potions, certain types of clothing, cursing, using powers over situations. The answer to some minds is ban them altogether. But, this is valid only if inherent within is an agenda or purpose for harm. There is none. For that is the nature of the catalyst. I would no more ban HP than I would deny Jesus for the same reasons and Him I would not deny for many more. The Bible is clear about witchcraft. It is also clear about a life associated with drinking.

Wine is a mocker, intoxicating drink arouses brawling, and whoever is led astray by it is not wise.

Proverbs 20:1

The believer has an alternative.

And, do not be drunk with wine, in which is dissipation; but be filled with the Spirit . . .

Ephesians 5:18

Dissipation is here the losing of one's senses which leads to excessive behaviour and by Spirit Paul speaks of the Holy Spirit who indwells in a more intensifying measure as we worship in song and other associated activity as per the context of this verse. So, the Bible does not promote witchcraft and it does not encourage drinking. Yet Jesus is accused by association of condoning this life-style.

The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Look, a gluttenous man and a winebibber, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' But wisdom is justified by her children.

Matthew 11:19

You look closely at Jesus' life and words and you find nothing of this life-style. Equally you look at HP and real witchcraft is absent. Even though both are respectively associated with these practises. It was equally argued about Jesus:

. . . there was much murmuring among the people concerning Him. Some said, "He is good"; others said, "No, on the contrary, He deceives the people."

John 7:12

Reminiscent of the things being said about HP. For that is the nature of things with a catalyst. Harry Potter is one of those gems of literature which, not unlike Jesus is on the one hand a stumbling block and a rock of offense whilst on the other a source of life, joy and fun.

The answer

So, how does one deal with the issue of association? If banning and a witch-hunt is not the answer, what is? With Jesus the religious leaders decided to kill Him, but found that this proved counter productive as a martyr often will promote a cause rather than quench it.

The 'easy' option to ban is not the way through. Any voice against HP is a publicist of the very association the voice would like to stop. So much so that if there were, for example, a warning notice of the 'association' within the books many to whom this had not occurred would be made aware and arouse their interest.

The answer I believe is the same as given for the difficulty the religious leaders were having with the first disciples of Jesus. They were concerned that the people were being led astray by the disciples (as previously they were concerned about Jesus) and they sought to do away with them. This is when a Pharisee by the name of Gamaliel stood up and gave the following counsel. He gave examples of various people rising up with various ideas leading people astray, but that after a time they disappeared. And he then said,

. . . now I say to you, keep away from these men and let them alone; for if this plan or this work is of men, it will come to nothing; but if it is of God, you cannot overthrow it-lest you even be found to fight against God. And they agreed with him . . .

Acts 5:38-40

What about the children?

The idea that a child cannot discern is false. The idea that a child can discern accurately is the challenge. The same is true of an adult. It can be hard work or, dead easy. It depends how much time any one spends with the real thing as to whether they recognise quickly the counterfeit. Anyone reading HP is deliberately subjected to what is not real, but instead wildly imaginary that a child instinctively knows the book is fiction. There are varying degrees of fiction, but plenty is fantastical in HP to make the point no matter how little of life one has experienced.

The Bible is clear that the enemy who is a group of fallen angels can still appear as good angels. So the appearance of an angel is not on it's own to be trusted.

And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light.

2 Corinthians 11:14

If we teach children that those who appear in clothing as a priest or a witch are to be trusted or not because of the appearance alone, we fail them from any lesson in discernment. It is this attitude that has permitted much children abuse from 'trusted' emblems of society. If we explain that trust is gained over time and a regular demonstration of genuine care then we are nearer the mark. The signs of evil have been mentioned above. We all do well to recognise them and teach these.

As for the association alluded to the answer, as I believe, is not to mention HP but perhaps to present schools with a list of the bodies of activity which are a bad influence on children. A list of various cults and facets of the occult explained in a manner suitable for children which would prove a valuable general resource as supplied by the local Christian community to all the schools in that area. The organisations mentioned in general earlier would do well to invest in such a programme. I recall using a good Handout entitled Doorway to Danger produced by the U.K. Evangelical Alliance several years ago. It was a valuable means to help remove Tarot card reading from a local radio station. This general help and advice to the media and schools about evil and deceived organisations with good examples of this is a way forward. To do any more than that as regards HP is as shown the danger of appearing like manipulation of the truth. An attempt to impose an out of context view. Which could be seen as a form of 'control' which in itself is a danger of being witchcraft.

The Church and HP

In some ways I believe J.K.Rowling has done the Church a big favour. HP gives a valuable lesson in discernment. The books help illustrate the following: to take the eyes off the traditional stereotype trappings of witchcraft to the reality of evil in the hearts and lives of individuals as witnessed by their fruits. For there is the real place where evil is to be combatted. A writer about monks with their robes, practises, life-style real or imaginary would have done no different in revealing the truth that it is in the heart that evil or goodness is found. For that is the beauty of story-telling. And it is in seeing the fruit from those hearts which reveal the source. A lesson which Jesus valued so highly He placed one He knew was deceived in the midst of His immediate followers so this truth would be realised. The illustration He used for them was Judas Iscariot himself.

The popularity of Harry Potter is bringing to life issues of reality which the Church needs to face. The issue of recognising and fighting evil where it really is. By the fruit and not the trappings. No longer to quench and by religious zeal condemn what is not our enemy.

For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.

Ephesians 6:12

Jesus said,

. . . be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.

Matthew 5:48

Judge not, that you be not judged. For with what judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with the same measure you use, it will be measured back to you.

Matthew 7:1-2

If the quotes out of context is the measure by which judgment has been passed on HP, in the light of that last Bible quote I do not wish to be in the shoes of those who have done so. I do not wish them to remain there either. Hence this article. After all the motive to protect children is good, but the way it is done is equally important. In righteousness and truth. If we are to be perfect as our Father in heaven, then we are to check things out thoroughly as He does.

. . . I am He who searches the minds and hearts.

Revelation 2:23

God finds out what the motives are in people for doing things. A practise of God regularly mentioned in scripture (Psalm 7:9; Jeremiah 17:10). Should we do any less? Indeed we are explicitly told to 'Test the spirits', 'test all things', 'Examine' (1 john 4:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:21; 2 Corinthians 13:5). If this sounds like hard work. I have news for you. It is. As the late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother used to say 'the price of peace is eternal vigilance'. All these things require constant effort. In my looking at HP I have discovered no evil. Let us be wise as to the association in which it is found.

What of toys?

The issue of merchandise related to a story depends here upon the purpose of it. If it is not in practise something which involves addictive role play and unhealthy influence or, if it is not a clear door to an evil spirit's activity like a ouija board or a divining tool then I have no problem. But, see my final counsel under 'Paul's Advice'. In other words, clothes, hats and such like are not in themselves any more than food would be as per Paul's counsel in Romans 14.

Paul's advice

Paul said,

. . . whatever is not from faith is sin.

Romans 14:23

This was a final statement following a discussion and instruction on how to behave in relation to eating meat or vegetables only, keeping or not a certain day as special and, any other activity of special meaning to one brother and not another. His words about whether to eat meat or not illustrate this well.

. . . one believes he may eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. Let not him who eats despise him who does not eat, and let not him who does not eat judge him who eats; for God has received him.

Romans 14:2-3

His aim was not to cause unnecessary offense or be a cause of stumbling to another's faith on the one hand, whilst preserving the freedom to act with a clear conscience on the other. If you believe something is okay then do it within the realms of clear conscience and with due respect to what is explicit as wrong. If you doubt if the practise is okay then it is better not to do so until such a time as you are confident. And your practise in which you feel free is not to be imposed upon another.

Fiction has brought with it what is now a wealth of past stories of magic and monsters. Witches have in the past largely been seen as bad people using bad tricks to harm others. HP on the other hand has changed all that. A witch is not bad unless it purposes to do bad. Since a real witch is a deceived person whom Jesus also died for, is that not truer to the real world? History has shown us how witch-hunts have by and large killed many more innocents than real practisers of evil. In places drastically reducing the population of women. I think a witch-hunt on HP is a dangerously similar practise to the wisdom of Jesus' accusers. When Jesus said 'wisdom is justified by her children' He knew the hold it had. The 'idea' of wrongdoing holding the accuser to 'have to' speak up and thus opening the way for mis-quotes and seeing little else. However there are fears and uncertainties which until recognised as having little truth do not permit me to impose upon the individual my viewpoint.

This is my practise as regards Harry Potter. They are stories I would read and recommend in the knowledge of their purpose as seen by the fruit, but I do not think anyone who feels unsure should do so: and by the fruit I am specifically referring to the fruit of evil or good in the lives told about in the stories. A valuable lesson for children of all ages. The occult and real sorcery exists, but from my perceived absence of these from the books it is only the appearance by association due to the traditional trappings which are a link. This makes the books suitable, but if the trappings associated with real witchcraft are a cause for stumbling then, let those in that apprehension not read them, but one who is happy to read them should be free to do so as per Paul's counsel.


 

Ref. M.015

Harry Potter quotes are © J. K. Rowling

Used as per the fair dealings provisions of the 1988 Copyright Act.

 
Unless otherwise stated Bible quotes are from the New King James Version

© copyright Thomas Nelson Inc. 1979,1980,1982.

© copyright Jacques More 2002. All Rights Reserved.

· The Early Church Fathers and Predestination
· The Impossibility of Evolution
· Harry Potter - The Catalyst
· Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?
· The Characteristics of Deception
· What About Tithing?